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The testimonials of NDErs have been categorised in different ways. The most commonly known and used systems are:
  • Moody: elements
  • Ring: phases
  • Sabom: types
  • Greyson: components




  • The experience cannot be put to words; is indescribable.
  • A feeling of peace and rest. Pain has vanished. No more suffering.
  • A realisation to be dead.
  • An Out Of Body Experience (OBE)
  • A visit to a dark space. An experience of transiting through a tunnel.
  • Observation of a non­worldly environment.
  • Encounters and communications with deceased people.
  • Encounters with a ray of light or light being.
  • Experience of total acceptance and unconditional love.
  • Access to profound knowledge and wisdom.
  • A review of one's entire life. All life events are occurring simultaneously.
  • Flash forward. Insights into the future.
  • Observation of a point of no return. Passing this point means return to the body is no longer a possibility.
  • The conscious return to the body.

    Most people only experience a few of these elements.

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Affective phase: feelings of absolute peace, calm, surrender and happiness. The pain has gone. No more suffering.

OBE phase: some people no longer experience to have a body, others can look down on their own body and observe their own operation and so on.

Third phase: the dark space .

Tunnel phase: transit through a tunnel to a blinding, very clear Light. Sometimes there are encounters with deceased people.

Fifth phase: entrance into a non­worldly environment of indescribable beauty.


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Sabom ­ TYPES


Autoscopic type: separation of body and mind. Observing one's own body, usually looking down on it. Mental force is used to relocate oneself without limitation of place or time.

Transcendent type: observation of events which transcend the earthly dimensions.

Combination of autoscopic and transcendent categories.

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Cognitive : time does not excist, quickening of thoughts, life review, flash forward and access to Universal Knowledge.

Affective : feelings of peace, joy, cosmic oneness and the presence of a clear Light.

Paranormal : all phenomena which cannot be explained by the laws of physics.

Transcendent : entrance into a non­worldly environment, encounter with a mystical being, encounters with deceased people or religious figures and reaching a point of no return.

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Dr Bruce Greyson has written an abundance of articles on the subject of NDE for leading medical journals, including Journal of Scientific Exploration, Journal of the American Medical Association, and American Journal of Psychiatry.

Dr Raymond Moody's books:

  • Life After Life
  • Life After Loss
  • Reunions: Visionary Encounters With Departed Loved Ones
  • Reflections On Life After Life

Dr Kenneth Ring's books:

  • Mindsight
  • Lessons from the Light
  • Heading toward Omega
  • Life at Death
  • The Omega Project

Dr Michael Sabom's books:

  • Recollections of Death
  • Light and Death

The Journal of Near Death Studies is the only peer­reviewed scholarly journal (ISSN 0891­4494) devoted exclusively to the field of near­death studies. It is cross­disciplinary and published quarterly.

Other sources for publications of Drs Greyson, Moody, Ring and Sabom are:

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